I’ve been talking about network address translation here for a while, including instructions on building your own NAT device with MirageOS. The library behind those posts, mirage-nat, went on to back talex5’s unikernel firewall for QubesOS, but was unreleased and essentially unmaintained between late 2015 and early 2017. At the March 2017 MirageOS hack retreat in Marrakesh, talex5 convinced me to do some much-needed maintenance on this library. After having let it age between March and October, I was persuaded to release a version with the hippest latest build system last week.
When last we spoke, I left you with a teaser about writing your own NAT implementation.
iptables (and friends
pf, to be a little less partisan and outdated) provide the interfaces to the kernel modules that implement NAT in many widely-used routers. If we wanted to implement our own in a traditional OS, we’d have to either take a big dive into kernel programming or find a way to manipulate packets at the Ethernet layer in userspace.
But if all we need to do is NAT traffic, why not just build something that only knows how to NAT traffic? I’ve looked at building networked applications on top of (and with) the full network stack provided by the MirageOS library OS a lot, but we can also build lower-level applications with fundamentally the same programming tactics and tools we use to write, for example, DNS resolvers.
Building A Typical Stack From Scratch
Let’s have a look at the
ethif-v4 example in the mirage-skeleton example repository. This example unikernel shows how to build a network stack “by hand” from a bunch of different functors, starting from a physical device (provided by
config.ml at build time, representing either a Xen backend if you configure with
mirage configure --xen or a Unix tuntap backend if you build with
mirage configure --unix). I’ve reproduced the network setup bits from the most recent version as of now and annotated them a bit:
WiFi is fairly ubiquitous in 2015. In most of the nonprofessional contexts in which we use it, it’s provided by a small box that’s plugged into mains power and an Ethernet cable, usually with an antenna or two sticking out of it. I’ve heard these boxes called all kinds of things - hotspots, middleboxes, edge routers, home routers, NAT devices, gateways, and probably a few more I’ve forgotten; there are surely more I haven’t heard.